16mm 8mm Film & Video Transferred to Virtual-Reality™

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8mm 16mm Movie Film Identification:

Bruce Mayfield MBA,BSCS
Video Preservationist & Computer Scientist
Virtual Reality Film & Video Transfer

My staff will be happy to help you identify, organize, number, and safely ship your film, video tapes and optical discs. Contact Us

Last Decade's Favorites:

Super 8mm Movies and 16mm Films

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Super 8mm Movies and 16mm Films

Video8 Hi8 D8 MiniDV HDV AVCHD VHS Tapes

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Home Movies-N-a-Flash™ Drive Product Line:

FOR FUN AND SHARING of 8mm 16mm Film and Video Tape "Virtual Transfers™"

A "virtual-drive" -- "hosted" on a Flash Drive (for mobility and economy).

Home Movies-For-EVER™ Drive Product Line:

FOR PRESERVATION of 8mm 16mm Film and Video Tape "Virtual Transfers™"

Our Home Movies-For-EVER™ Drives are different from "traditional drives" because they are actually...

Virtual-Products "layered" inside of other virtual products!


What about DVDs?

We can make

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Watch your "Virtual" Standard 8mm, Super 8 Film, 16mm Film Home Movies on

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8mm 16mm Film & Video Transferred to Virtual-Reality™

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Telecine Machine -Vs- Telecine Transfer -Vs- Virtual transfer (further below)

Identifying Super 8mm 16mm Movies Film (starts here)

The following information is provided, to identify Super8, Standard 8mm, and 16mm movie films -- which will help you to request a quote.

<b>16mm film</b> 
    <b>8mm film</b><b>Super 8mm</b>film Film Transfer Comparisons

16mm Film, 8mm Film & Super 8 Film PRIMER

For Beginners...

A little Primer on 16mm film, Standard 8mm movie film (Regular 8mm movie film) and Super 8mm movie film.

The following tutorial is for people new to

This primer will help you both identify and date
16mm film, Standard 8mm movie film (Regular 8mm movie film), and Super 8mm movie films that you have -- for film transfer.

How to Identify, Date, and Speed-rate Your Movie film for Film Transfer :
Picture (Above) shows examples of "small format" movie film s

16mm movie film,
Standard 8mm movie film (Regular 8mm movie film) (also called Standard 8mm movie film ) and
Super 8mm movie movie film.

16mm was invented before Standard 8mm movie film (Regular 8mm movie film) and Super 8mm movie films. 16mm movie film was made from "hand-milled" Silver halide -- the grains of which were very large compared to later films. Although 16mm is 4 times the size of Standard 8mm movie film (Regular 8mm movie film) and Super 8mm movie film, the resolution of the film is comparable to that of Super 8mm movie film and some later dating Also, 16mm movie film was shot and run at 16fps in the early 1900's. Modern versions of 16mm movie film are run at 24 fps -- which actually makes 16mm movie film a "hybrid" format -- with one foot in the "small format film industry" and one foot in the "large format film industry".

It is because of this dual role of 16mm movie film, that '8mm Film-Transfer Mills™ can "get away with" talking about film and equipment in broad terms and then implying that what is "good" for large format films -- like captures with "irregular pull-down patterns" -- is likewise, "good" for "small format films". In truth the converse ONLY is true, that what is "good" for "small format films" -- like synchronizations at "15fps" -- is also "good" for "large format films" -- but NOT VISA VERSA.

Standard 8mm movie film (Regular 8mm movie film) and 16mm movie film

Rough Dating of Movie film :
16mm movie film - silent -- 1923 to Early 1960's.
16mm movie film - sound - 1935 to present.
Standard 8mm movie film (Regular 8mm movie film), Standard 8mm movie film -- Late 1932 thru 1990s.
Super 8mm movie film -- Introduced in 1965 to present.

Correct Film Transfer Speeds:
Silent 16mm film - silent -15 fps or 16 fps (with exceptions) with 40 frames per foot
Standard 8mm movie film (Regular 8mm movie film) film - silent -15 fps or 16 fps. with 80 frames per foot

NOTE: 8mm Film-Transfer Mills™ transfer this at 20 fps
Introducing a 20% "real-time" distortion - 12 minutes lost per hour.

Super 8mm movie film

Super 8mm movie film was" Shot" usually 18 fps; commercially 24 fps and has 72 frames per foot
Super 8mm movie Movie cameras and projectors had "variable speeds".

Correct Film Transfer Speeds:
Super 8mm movie film" Silent", 18 fps
Super 8mm movie film" Sound", 18 fps OR 24 fps.
NOTE: 8mm Film-Transfer Mills™ transfer this at 20 fps
Introducing a 10% "real-time" distortion - 6 minutes lost per hour.

Super 8 Film Sound for Film Transfer (Click to Refresh Pictures) NOTE: Super 8 Sound film has "magnetic" Sound tracks glued on both edges of the "under-side" of the film which looks like 2 copper colored stripes (see above).

<b>16mm film</b> Optical Sound track for Film Transfer (Click to Refresh Pictures) Commercial film : Super 8mm movie Sound and 16mm Sound: Usually "optical" Sound tracks. (Black squiggly tracks: above)

Both 16mm movie film and Super 8mm movie movie COMMERCIAL films, were" Shot and run" at 24 fps - ONLY.
Most domestic clients, with rare exceptions, do NOT have "commercial films" with "optical sound tracks".

<b>16mm film</b> <b>8mm film</b><b>Super 8mm</b>film for Film Transfer (Click to Refresh Pictures)
Holes Along the Edge of the film (see picture above) :
The size of the holes are the same for both 16mm movie film and Standard 8mm movie film.
Some 16mm has only one set of holes -- like Regular 8 film.
Spacing of the holes in 16mm movie film is different than Standard 8mm movie film (Regular 8mm movie film) -- also called Standard 8 film.

Super 8mm movie movie film has smaller holes - less than half the size of Standard 8mm movie film (Regular 8mm movie film) movie film. Spacing is different.
Correct Film Transfer is very different for each.

Reels or Spools (see Standard 8mm movie film (Regular 8mm movie film) pictures below):

Hole in Center of Reel or Spool:
Early 16mm and Standard 8mm movie film (Regular 8mm movie film): the hole in a spool was
1) the size of a number 2 pencil -- on one side of the spool -- and 2) square and roughly the same size -- on the other side of the spool.

Later, 16mm spools standardized with a square hole.
Later, Standard 8mm movie film (Regular 8mm movie film) spools standardized with a round hole -- with a notch on one side of the reel or both.

Super 8mm movie spool: The hole in the spool was the size of your "pinky finger" and round on both sides of the spool.

8mm Film Boxes of "double 8" for <b>8mm film</b> Transfer (Click to Refresh Pictures)

Standard 8mm movie film , 95 percent of the time, is on a grey plastic, 3 inch spool and came in a Yellow cardboard box -- for mailing.

Double 8 movie film came in a yellow box roughly 1 inch thick.
Single 8 also called Standard 8 came in a yellow box roughly 1/2 inch thick.

Both types of films -- collectively -- are called Standard 8mm movie film (Regular 8mm movie film) or Standard 8mm movie film and, before 1965, usually fond on little grey plastic reels -- with excepts around 1942 (see history below), and 1965 (more follows)..

Super 8 movie film (introduced in 1965) was sold and processed on 50 foot spools -- which were usually a blue cover with a white plastic spool.. Rarely covers were also red, yellow, green, black, and white.

About that same time (1965), Standard 8mm movie film (Regular 8mm movie film) began to appear spooled onto white plastic reels with blue covers, too.. The hole in those spools was the size of a number 2 pencil or standard pen. Most easily confused with Super 8mm movie film.

ATTENTION: : It is very common for Standard 8mm movie film (Regular 8mm movie film) to be on a Super 8mm movie spool and Super 8mm movie film, on a Standard 8mm movie film (Regular 8mm movie film) spool -- by mistake of family members. When in doubt , look at the film itself and the size of the holes in the film -- not the spool.

HISTORICAL NOTE - TO HELP DATE AND IDENTIFY: Earliest Standard 8mm movie film (Regular 8mm movie film) or Standard 8 film was called Double 8, because it was sold as 25 feet of 16mm movie film. It was called a "25 foot Double 8".

The tell-tell oversized, yellow box contained a tiny back metal canister -- sealed with black cotton tape -- to protect the brown, unexposed 16mm movie film inside.

The 16mm movie film was "double exposed" -- in 2 passes. Each pass -- exposing the entire length of the 16mm wide film -- but only exposed an Standard 8mm movie film wide strip along the length of the16mm movie film.

The cameraman would shoot one pass and then flip the 16mm movie film in the camera -- to shoot the second pass. This accounts for the "flashes of yellow light" half-way through early Standard 8mm movie film (Regular 8mm movie film)s.

At the time of film processing, the 16mm movie film was developed and then split down the center -- thus creating 2 strips of Standard 8mm movie film. . The two ends of the (now Standard 8mm movie ) film was glued together in the center and spooled onto a 50 foot spool of Standard 8mm movie film (shown below). This is nice to know if you need to date reels of film.

(Click to Refresh Pictures)

All 3 reels above are Double 8mm 25 foot movie film -- which is actually 2 strips of 25 foot film -- glued together (doubled) to make a 50 foot spool.

Proof of this is the splice located exactly dead center of the length of movie film.

DATING INFORMATION:Double 8mm & Standard 8mm Movie films

  1. (left top) Double 8mm 25 foot movie film reel -- aluminum (shown) or black metal reel (not shown) (pre-WWII), or

  2. (center bottom) Double 8mm 25 foot movie film reel a cardboard reel (WWII), or

  3. (right top) Double 8mm 25 foot movie film OR Standard 8mm movie film reel -- a grey plastic reel (post-WWII)

    In the1950s Kodok started spooling a solid 50 foot strip of film onto the same plastic grey reels (above right); however, the little yellow box (not shown) was only half the width of the yellow Double 8mm box (above).

Double 8mm 25 foot movie film was shipped back to owner in the same oversize yellow box -- now twice the length and half the width of the original 25 foot reel of 16mm movie film.

WARNING:Because the box "looks too big for the reel", many people wrongly assume the reel is in the "wrong box". This is one of the major reasons reels become disassociated from the correct box.

NOTE: Many times the cameraman would forget that the film had already been exposed and flipped -- and would expose the same edge twice. Thus "double exposures" were created on Double 8 film.

Click here for an introduction to this website to learn


(Dirty Little Secrets THEY Do NOT Want YOU to KNOW!)

The "tech note" below on

deals with movie film transfer semantics; however,
to protect yourself and get the most from this website,
these notes should NOT be read lightly.

8mm Films:

Since most readers have some "flavor" of Standard 8mm movie film (Regular 8mm movie film) or Super 8mm movie film -- for simplicity of reading, I refer to 8mm film -- which covers both film formats.

16mm Movie Film Is Confusing:

A 16mm movie film transfer can be much more complex than a Standard 8mm movie film or Super 8mm movie film transfer -- because 16mm movie film was used both domestically and commercially -- each with its own "shooting speed".

For Example: 16mm SILENT movie film and 16mm SOUND movie film -- could be shot at 1 of 3 speeds -- even in the early century 1900s -- 16fps, 18fps, and 24fps.

We have a very simple solution for assuring that the correct speed is used (more later) and insuring the highest quality of the 16mm format -- at any speed -- without speed/motion distortions.

16mm movie film is MUCH OLDER than 8mm or Super 8:

16mm is much older than either Super 8 Movie Film or Standard 8mm (Regular 8mm) movie film. Old !6mm film is usually in some stage of "vinegar syndrome". 16mm film is thus "more brittle" and 16mm splices are "hot pressed" or use "custom cut double-sided tape".

After you get a 16mm Film Telecine Film Transfer quote (what I call now call a 16mm Virtual-Transfer™ - with good reason), you are advised to call me about your 16mm movie film for a free 16mm movie film transfer "evaluation and consult" -- to determine if you have "vinegar syndrome" -- and, if so, what stage "vinegar syndrome" your film may be in. Be advised, you can NOT ALWAYS SMELL "vinegar syndrome".

16mm Movie Films and Standard 8mm Films (also called Regular 8mm film):

All references to Standard 8mm movie film (Regular 8mm movie film) -- also apply to 16mm movie film. when talking about movie film virtual-transfers. This is because all the principles that apply to Standard 8mm film also apply to 16mm film (early 20th Century) because both film formats were shot at 16 frames per second and both films have the same chemical composition.

Instead, I just talk about Standard 8mm film -- with the ASSUMPTION THAT ALL PRINCIPLES APPLY -- TO 16mm movie film AS WELL.

16mm Movie SOUND Films and Super 8 SOUND Movie Film:

Both 16mm SOUND Films and Super 8 SOUND film were both shot at either

Thus all references to Super 8 SOUND Film also applies to 16mm SOUND Film.

Standardization of Movie Film Terms:

Yes it is confusing -- until now...

Official Terms:

Slang Terms: Mean the Same Thing

Official Terms:

Slang Terms: Mean the Same Thing

Standard 8mm film and Super 8mm film are the SAME SIZE FILM -- HOWEVER...


Telecine Film Machine -Vs- Telecine Film Transfer -Vs- Virtual Film™ transfer:

(Dirty Little Secrets THEY Do NOT Want YOU to KNOW!)

Telecine Machine

A "telecine machine" is last century equipment

This technology works well -- ONLY for fast moving movie film -- "originally shot" at 24 frames per second.


A "telecine machine" technology was "NEVER DESIGNED" for slow moving, small format movie films...

The slower frame rates of small format films (16 frames per second and 18 frames per second), made it both

to synchronize slow moving, small format movie films with a video signal.

Problems with 20 Frames per Second Telecine Machines:

A "Telecine Machine" -- for small format film -- is known (professionally) as a "poor man's transfer" because it can not begin to approach the high quality of a "Professional Telecine Transfer" (see below).

This statement is not meant to degrade or disrespect the "poor man or poor woman", however,

A "Telecine Machine" is the "do-everything-in-a-single-pass" method used by "big box stores" and "pharmacies".

Most "small format" "telecine machines" "synchronize" 20 full film frames to 60 interlaced video "fields" at 20 film frames per second. Since interlaced video has 2 "odd" / "even" interlaced "fields per frame", this translates into to roughly 2 full frames of video and 1 blended frame of video for each 3 frames of video.

These "two technical wrongs" do NOT make "a technical right". Thus, it is impossible for a "telecine machine" to synchronize film frames to video frames

Another way to say this, is...

Telecine machines introduce "time/motion distortions" -- not in the original movie film as follows:

  1. introduce speed distortion called "over-clocking distortion" (running too fast)
  2. this introduces a "premature ending" -- the film ends sooner than if transferred at the speed at which it was originally shot
  3. this introduces "motion distortion" which can be very complex
  4. if a mechanical 3:2 pull-down shutter is used, "judder" is introduced to video images.
  5. "Judder" is a "staggering effect" caused from duplicated frames of film inserted by the "telecine machine" into the video stream -- very obvious to the human eye.



ALL "telecine machines" use "on the fly" "color correction" by means of


Automatic Color Correction can NOT compensate for the "pre-set color temperature" (i.e., color bias) of movie film

COMPLICATIONS: Automatic Color Correction DISTORTION is further complicated by

Automatic Color Correction in old Telecine Film Transfer Machines for old small gauge movie film

For example, under the best of film conditions,

In Layman's terms, using a "telecine film transfer machine", you can kiss the "natural colors" of your movie films, "good-bye".


A "telecine film transfer machine" for "small format film" synchronizes film frames to video frames

Super 8mm movie film runs 11% too fast

Standard 8 and 16mm movie films run 25% too fast


It is impossible -- mathematically or mechanically -- to synchronize 16 or 18 full frames of movie film into 30 full frames of video -- to create "full frames" of a progressive scan video -- without "time/motion distortion" or without "judder".

Retrofitting a "telecine machine" with a "progressive scan" camera -- with 3:2 pull-down -- is only "lipstick on a pig" -- for marketing purposes -- and introduces profound "judder" into the finally images from "small frame" movie films -- which can NEVER be REMOVED. Transfers from these retrofitted machines is inferior to older interlace telecine transfer machines.

The most common product from a "telecine machine" is a "DVD disc" -- because DVD is an "interlaced video medium".

A "telecine machine" captures video from movie film -- in some cases -- directly to a DVD -- much like "ripping" a "VHS tape" to a "DVD disc".

This "ripping process" can ONLY produce video at the LOWEST QUALITY that the DVD Standard will support. Thus the DVD is BELOW THE QUALITY OF THE MOVIE FILM.

DVD "copies" made from these DVDs have lower image quality than the original DVD, because the "recording errors" are compounded in each successive "copy generation". This is another reason NARA ban recordable DVD for "archive purposes". More on this later.

"Video Capture" implies "bondage" or "imprisonment" of video

The death of the Music CD Disc Industry is a recent example of death by technology shift.

By the way, "recordable DVD discs" have been banned by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) for "archive purposes" -- for many years -- and they (NARA) advise the public -- and thus ALL COMMERCIAL ARCHIVE SERVICES -- TO DO THE SAME. Much more on this later.

NARA's "advice" on recordable DVDs is "obstructed", in my opinion, by corporate enterprise -- to the damage of "the poor man and the poor woman". Should the "majority" of "poor men and poor women" prove to be a "minority", then the double standards of the "Film and Video Transfer Industry" should be investigated as "discrimination" -- if not as a "conspiracy" -- subject to "class action" -- by "the poor man and the poor woman".


Master files made from Telecine Machines have all the technical distortions listed above. "Master files" from these machines can -- in no way -- be considered the "digital equivalent" of your original movie film.

A stand-alone "digital video file" is NOT a "virtual-video file".

Most "master files" are "proprietary" -- which ties them to "software editing technology" on either a Mac or PC computers. Both the software and the hardware are subject to "technology shifts".

Passing such vulnerable "master files" to the next generation is a disservice -- especially with the current shift to "cloud technology" -- which will phase out the laptop computer -- and laptop software -- as we know it now.

For this reason, I caution the use of "nonlinear editor bound" video formats -- like ProRes.

Telecine FILM Transfer (process)

A "telecine transfer" is a "process" -- not a machine -- for transferring "film frames" to "video frames".

In professional studios, a "film-to-video transfer" is a separate process from other post-production processes.

Post-production processes include

For Example: Our Color Artists can determine "color temperature" of a video clip by simply by determining the "time of day" based on the "length of shadows". NO TELECINE MACHINE CAN DO THAT!

Yet, that is only ONE MINOR "Trick of the Trade" -- that separates a

A Virtual Film™ Transfer:

A "Virtual Film™ Transfer" is the "newest evolution" in "Telecine Film Transfer Processing" (see above). Virtual Film™ Transfer is a process where images are "freed from" (not "captured to") any one medium.

A "Virtual Film™ Transfer™" does for "home movies", what Netflix, Apple TV, You Tube is doing for the "commercial movies" and "social media (viral) videos".

The life of the Virtual-Video™ image is no longer tied to the life of the physical medium. True Virtualization of a video file(i.e., Virtual Video™ file) means the video file itself is layered inside a "digital container" -- like a virtual disc -- which insolates the video images from the decline of physical media, physical playback devices, or proprietary software -- tied to physical hardware or computer.


Video from a Virtual Film™ Transfer is "universally compatible" -- which means the Virtual Video™ library -- a carefully selected mixture of different Virtual Video™ formats (i.e. referred to as Virtual Diversity™) -- works with many media and many devices.

Thus a Virtual DVD™, for example, can be used to create a Solid State DVD™ -- like our Home-Movies-N-a-Flash™ Drive; or to create a Virtual Cloud DVD™ -- like on a Google Drive. These NEW forms of the "virtual" DVD format -- are the FUTURE of the DVD format -- freed from the OLD "dics technology" of the PAST.


FORWARD COMPATIBILITY means a Virtual Film™ Transfer can be preserved "Virtually For EVER™".

When in a "free digital state" -- the "life of video" is "timeless. That is because the video is inside a "virtual (digital) container" -- instead of "captured" to a degrading or obsoleting physical medium.

In a "free digital state", the video is liberated

For example, a Virtual DVD requires NO PHYSICAL DISC and thus requires NO PHYSICAL DISC PLAYER.

This "free state" means (makes) the video "cheap and easy" to replicate.

This "free state" creates "New Product Opportunity™" -- to innovate the Virtual Video format into NEW mediums and devices -- as new technologies evolve in the future.

This "free state" means, a Virtual Film™ Transfer is both "forward compatible" AND "backward compatible" -- now and in the future -- with any medium and any device that can store it.

To this "free state" Virtual Reality, we have added an on-board "media player" and "tutorial" -- as part of the Virtual Drive (i.e., Virtual Container™ Library) -- which is compatible with Mac or PC computer platforms.

For now, we are the only studio offering True Virtual Transfers™ -- now -- and having over a 5 year head-start on any other company in the Film Transfer Industry.

Our Virtual Video™ Preservation Method meets -- and exceeds -- Public Archive Standards of the National Archives and Records Administration and the Library of Congress.

Master Site Link: Click Here for Tutorial About ...

8mm 16mm Film & Video Transferred to Virtual-Reality™

For "Bottom Line" on Virtual-Products Offers:

Special Bundled Movie Film Offer for any Budget